TOF-SIMS investigation of degradation pathways occurring in a variety of organic photovoltaic devices: the ISOS-3 inter-laboratory collaboration

Birgitta Andreasen, David M. Tanenbaum, Martin Hermenau, Eszter Voroshazi, Matthew T. Lloyd, Yulia Galagan, Birger Zimmernann, Suleyman Kudret, Wouter Maes, Laurence Lutsen, Dirk Vanderzande, Uli Wuerfel, Ronn Andriessen, Roland Roesch, Harald Hoppe, Gerardo Teran-Escobar, Monica Lira-Cantu, Agnes Rivaton, Guelsah Y. Uzunoglu, David S. GermackMarkus Hosel, Henrik F. Dam, Mikkel Jorgensen, Suren A. Gevorgyan, Morten V. Madsen, Eva Bundgaard, Frederik C. Krebs, Kion Norrman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


The present work is the fourth (and final) contribution to an inter-laboratory collaboration that was planned at the 3rd International Summit on Organic Photovoltaic Stability (ISOS-3). The collaboration involved six laboratories capable of producing seven distinct sets of OPV devices that were degraded under well-defined conditions in accordance with the ISOS-3 protocols. The degradation experiments lasted up to 1830 hours and involved more than 300 cells on more than 100 devices. The devices were analyzed and characterized at different points of their lifetimes by a large number of non-destructive and destructive techniques in order to identify specific degradation mechanisms responsible for the deterioration of the photovoltaic response. Work presented herein involves time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) in order to study chemical degradation in-plane as well as in-depth in the organic solar cells. Various degradation mechanisms were investigated and correlated with cell performance. For example, photo-oxidation of the active material was quantitatively studied as a function of cell performance. The large variety of cell architectures used (some with and some without encapsulation) enabled valuable comparisons and important conclusions to be drawn on degradation behaviour. This comprehensive investigation of OPV stability has significantly advanced the understanding of degradation behaviour in OPV devices, which is an important step towards large scale application of organic solar cells.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11780-11799
Number of pages20
JournalPhysical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Issue number33
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes


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